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PDF. In addition, the parent (P 6) was the highest Mokadem et al., 2016-34-parent for fiber strength. The concept of particle bombardment has been put forward as a universal mechanism for transporting substances into any living cell. The plots having highest number of weed population showed greater loss of rice yield. Singh, BHU, Varnasi; Dr MMK. Somaclonal variation- A novel source of. The output of different research works clearly indicated that weed infestation led 20-80% reduction in maize yield. The average of body weights of chicks at 1-day, 4, 8, 9, 10, 16 and 17 weeks were 31.02, 292.47, 679.29, 794.58, 892.82, 1362.53 and 1252.17 g, and BW gains at (1-4, 4-8, 9-10 and10-16) weeks were 261.45, 386.82, 98.24, and 469.51 g, respectively. Plant breeding is the use of natural and artificial selection to produce heritable variations and novel combinations of alleles in plants and to identify plants with novel and useful properties. The cross (P 1 × P 4) in F 1 hybrids and in F 2 generation showed the highest mean performance for this trait. Exper. Genetic evaluation: The local Egyptian cultivars are (Giza 85, Giza 91, Giza 95) and the promising hybrid (Giza 90 × Australian). The procedure was followed for six generations. 3. Inbred line: It is a relatively true-breeding strain resulting from at least 3 successive generations of controlled self-fertilization or back crossing. Bd .... 30.11.1998 to revise PG Curricula in Genetics and Plant Breeding, and. These genotypes were crossed in a half-diallel genetic design according to Griffing's method II, model I (1956). k. When selection was for DEP only, the genetic gain = 0.026 %. Crop varieties respond differently to planting dates. Weeds crop association, critical period of crop-weed competition, methods of weeds control, herbicide tolerant maize cultivars and losses due to weeds and economics of weed control in maize are discussed in this, Weeds compete with rice for water, nutrients, space and light. The other crosses exhibited desirable but non-significant standard heterosis for fruit yield and other component traits suggested that there is no scope of exploiting heterosis commercially, but possibility of isolating desirable segregants among these hybrid combinations. Since 1900, Mendel's laws of genetics provided the scientific basis for plant breeding. Plant Breeding and Biometrics - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The parent (P 3) was the highest parent for fiber length. Late planting dates cause higher non-structural carbohydrate concentration in stems at mid-grain filling stages due to low temperature exposure of crop limiting kernel growth and photosynthesis. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2 nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Addeddate 2017-01-16 15:36:29 Identifier in.ernet.dli.2015.271669 Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t0zp95p2s Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 Ppi 600 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.1.0. plus-circle Add Review. Yet, in modern crops, the long domestication process has impoverished the genetic diversity available for breeding. 2019 Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics): 34/91 (Agronomy) 124/156 (Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology) 110/234 (Plant Sciences) Lec 01 – Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding. The predicted breeding values for each group (sires, dams, male and female chicks) depending on their BW at 10 weeks of age (marketing age) averaged 81.621, 100.797, 87.301 and 71.56 g and on BW at 17 weeks of age were 88.422, 109.197, 94.576 and 77.523 g respectively. As all traits of a plant are controlled by genes located on chromosomes, conventional plant breeding can be considered as the manipulation of the combination of chromosomes. The exotic varieties are (Karashanky a variety introduced from Russian and C.B. Weight and number of eggs were also recorded daily and accordingly egg mass was calculated. Results showed that the highest mean performance was found for the parent (P 2) for (B.W.). The most Starting from 35.8% and 46.7% intercrossing respectively for the original populations of white flint and yellow sweet maize, after six generations of selection for isolation, the cycleV populations showed a very low per cent of intercrossing--4.9% and 3.4% The progress on a per year basis in decreasing the per cent of intercrossing was 5.9% for the white flint and 8.6% for the yellow sweet maize. The experiment was set as randomized complete block design with three replications. The regression of the future performance on past performance can be used to compute repeatability. Variability forms the root of all breeding practices. a. Plant Breeding book. Results cleared that the parent (P 3) was the best parent for micronaire reading. Plant Breeding The Production of New crop varieties which are Superior to their Parents. Lec 04 – Modes of … Planting date plays important role in the growth, development and yield of maize. (1966). A number of possible mechanisms for the origin of this phenomenon are considered. Singh starting at $58.57. Singh, Marker-Assisted Plant Breeding: Principles and ... 018/i3107e/i3107e03.pdf). This review serves as a useful tool to maize researchers and growers for making the right decision on nitrogen application on maize. Haccius, B. These genotypes were crossed in a half-diallel fashion according to Griffing's method II, model I (1956). Plant breeding programs can be divided into two groups including classical and modern plant breeding. SAS program used to analyze the body weights (BW) and body weight gains (BWG) at different ages. Essentials of Plant Breeding was written as a textbook for a first-semester course in plant breeding. All rights reserved. pproaches to disease management intended to decrease the yield gap of lentil. in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. The five crosses GZ 1368-S-5-4 / Sakha S 300, GZ 1368-S-5-4 / IR14K642, GZ 9461-4-2-3-1 / Milyang 349, GZ 9461-4-2-3-1 / Sakha S 300 and GZ 9461-4-2-3-1 / IR14K642 recorded the highest values and maybe extensively used in rice programs by adopting a heterosis breeding strategy. Organization, Rome, Italy.methods in corn breeding. Proper nitrogen applications as basal doses at planting stage, split doses at critical growth stages namely knee high, and flowering stages are necessary for higher grain yield. The main objectives of the present investigation are to determined heterosis, general and specific combining ability, gene action and inbreeding depression for fiber quality properties. Lec 03 – Apomixis – classification and significance in plant breeding. a. g. The real producing ability of 60 dams depending on their EW, DEP and DEM averaged 1.608 g, 1.433% and 0.73 g respectively. Sukhadhan-3) and two weed management practices (Weeded condition and non weeded condition) were studied in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Genetic Engineering for Plant Protection Methods, State of the Art, and Applications. Registrar of Institute PART III PLANT BREEDER'S RIGHTS 6. This article summarizes various effects of planting dates on maize growth, development and yield parameters. The cross (P 2 × P 5) in F 1 hybrids and the cross (P 1 × P 5) in F 2 populations showed the highest mean performance for this trait. In particular the phenomenon may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species. It is argued that this variation already is proving to be of significance for plant improvement. Body weights of resulted chicks were recorded at 1-day old and weekly till maturity. Hatched chicks considered as parents (G0), and distributed randomly in to ten families. Applicability of EU GMO rules . The highest grain yield (3.99 t ha-1) and straw yield (6.90 t ha-1) was found in weeded plots compared to non-weeded plots (2.321 t ha-1 and 6.43 t ha-1, respectively). The effect of inbreeding and of selection within inbred lines, Larkin, P. J., & Scowcroft, W. R. (1981). Sanford, J.C., Klein, T. M., Wolf, E. D., & Allen, N. (1987). Hybrid: Product of … Germplasm. plant breeding and other modern tools for genetic crop improvement. A randomized complete blocks design with three replications was used to evaluate the parents, F 1 hybrids and F 2 generation during 2013, 2014 and 2015 seasons at Sids Agric. Pure line: A strain in which all individuals have descended by self-fertilization from a single homozygous individual. Field Manual of Maize Breeding Procedures. Moreover, the highest mean performance was found for the parent (P 6) for Uniformity ratio. The courses in genetics include principles of genetics, gene regulation and genetic control of plant reproduction. Pages 11-58. Grain yield plant-1 was highly significantly and positively correlated with plant height, flag leaf area, number of panicles plant-1, panicle weight and panicle density index indicating the significance of these traits as determination criteria in yield enhancement. Thousands of cells can be penetrated simultaneously, in situ, as they occur in tissues. Multiple regression, generalized lattices, unreplicated experiments, multi-factor experiments, series of experiments can be analysed. (1980). The relative heterosis will only help to understand the genetic status of the characters (Moll and Stuber, 1974) [30] . ... ENGLISH, Paperback, B.D. Intracrossed (homogamic) kernels from the ears having the lowest degree of intercrossing (heterogamic) were saved for planting the next generation. New plant-breeding techniques . So when the estimates were high, culling poor performers on the basis of a single record will be effective in improving flock performance. In general, there are three main procedures to manipulate plant chromosome combination. b. Durga Prasad of ..... Singh, B.D. BW of chicks at 1 day, 4, 8, 9, 10, 16 and 17 week were 31.02, 292.47, 679.29, 794.58, 892.82, 1362.53 and 1252.17 g, and BWG at (1-4, 4-8, 9-10 and10-16) weeks were 261.45, 386.82, 98.24, and 469.51 g, respectively. This new method of delivering macromolecules into living cells and tissues should have diverse scientific applications. a. An experiment was carried out in kharif 2018 to estimate standard heterosis for yield and its contributing traits using 55 hybrids developed through line x tester design were evaluated at three different locations at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) with commercial check ‘OH 102’. SUMMARY . Plant Breeding Impacts and Current Challenges Ancient Agriculture Agriculture began about 12 000 years ago, as the early farmers sowed and harvested plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. 4. Interaction effect between variety and weed population showed non-significant results for all growth and yield attributes. Non-significant results among tested genotypes were obtained for grain yield and straw yield however the maximum grain yield (3.68 t ha-1) and straw yield (5.99 t ha-1) were found in IR-88839- 39-1-6-4 which might be due to highest test grain weight (30.64 g), tallest plant height (105.7m) and lower sterility percentage (21.84%). Genetic differences among lines were indicated for the regression of the lines on the environmental index with no evidence of nonadditive gene action. c. The effect of generation on BW of chicks at all ages and BW gains at 1-4 and 4-8 weeks was highly significant, and the effect was significant (P≤0.05) on BW gains during 9-10 and 10-16 weeks. h. The rank correlation between estimated real producing ability also calculated and being 0.76, 0.62 and 0.82 (P≤0.01) between EW and each of DEP and DEM, and between the last two traits, respectively. A concise package to analyse plant breeding experiments (lattices, unreplicated and multi-factor experiments). The maximum positive and highly significant mid-parent heterosis and heterobeltiosis for grain yield plant-1 were observed. The integrated weed management (IWM) system is recommended to reduce the use of herbicides for its sustainable production. Thomas W. Whitaker. The chicks of black group significantly excelled the white group in their weight at 1 day, 4, 8, 16 and 17, as well at ages 1-4 and 10-16 weeks. Biologists commonly wish to introduce a wide range of substances into living cells. Maize growth and development involves numerous biochemical reactions which are sensitive to variance in weather parameters as affected by planting dates. Buy Plant Breeding Principles & Methods online, free home delivery.. Buy Plant Breeding on. 22. In the first one, plants are selected with desirable characters and elimination of undesirable characters occurs. Genetic gain, correlated response, restricted selection index for body weights as well for egg traits and the correlation between the genetic merit and the index were computed. https://www.plantbreeding.org/content/what-is-plant-breeding. a. Highly significant effects (P≤0.01) of genetic group and generation on EW were observed, the differences between the two lines and the generations in their DEP and DEM were not significant. The parents, their 15 F 1 hybrids and 15 F 2 populations were evaluated. Variance component of random effects estimated by REML and tested for positive definiteness to develop reliable estimates. Among weed species, Rotala indica was found most dominant (1091 m-2) and proportion 18%) followed by Eriocaulon cinereum (245.83 m-2 and 12%). Interpretation PART II ADMINISTRATION 3. Pages 1-10. 2. Res. The Genetics of Petunia. Results revealed in this study could be summarized as: Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. In conclusion, a mixture of 10% pawpaw juice and 90%coconut milk-citrate was as effective as EYC and could be optimally used as an extender for ram semen stored at room temperature for up-to 6 hours, This study aimed to investigate the genetic parameters for body weights of White and Black local chickens. Artificial inseminations, using semen extended with the better of the two test diluents (P1 C9 ) and egg-yolk citrate (EYC) at 6 hours post extension were carried out. Results revealed that the parent (P 4) was the earliest parent for (F.F.N.). d. The rank correlations among values of real producing ability of each pair of BW at different ages were also calculated and being all positive and highly significant. The present investigation included six divergent cotton genotypes as parents. At three, four, five and six hours post extension, P3 C7 (64.00±1.41, 52.80±1.16, 41.00±0.71, 31.60±0.68 respectively) had significantly (p< 0.05) low motility score (%) compared to P1 C9 (71.20±0.86, 61.00±1.48, 52.80±1.28, 44.60±1.21 respectively) and EYC (76.00±1.14, 69.00±1.30, 61.40±0.75, 49.20±0.86 respectively). Initially early farmers simply selected food plants with particular desirable characteristics, and employed these as progenitors for subsequent generations, resulting in an accumulation of valuable traits over time. While, the highest mean performance was found for the parent (P 5) for (S.C.Y.). Center, Ministry of Agric., Baghdad. Res. Food and Agriculture. The relative heterosis will only help to understand the genetic status of the characters (Moll and Stuber, 1974) [30] . The correlated response to selection for WT10W when the selection applied for WT4W = 7.108 g/generation. The experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 seasons at Sids Agric. This study principally focuses on the role of the nitrogen in growth, development, and production of the maize, emphasizing time and methods of fertilizer application and their suitable rates. However, from the practical point of view, standard heterosis is the most important of the 3 types of heterosis because it is aimed at developing desirable hybrids superior to the existing high yielding commercial varieties (Chaudhary, 1984), ... Growth rate and egg production under conventional system of rearing in the villages are very low. Body weights of hatched chicks were recorded at 1-day of their age and weekly till maturity (17 weeks). 58 a variety introduced from American). This book offers a detailed overview of both conventional and modern approaches to plant breeding. Conception was monitored using a portable ultrasound machine. Exploitation of heterosis is primarily dependent on the screening and selection of available germplasm that could be produced by better combinations of important agronomic characters. BATS, Agency for Biosafety Research and Assessment of. Results cleared that the mean squares for fiber quality properties studied due to parents, F 1 hybrids and F 2 generation were highly significant for all traits except micronaire reading which was significant in parents. our price 428, Save Rs. The F 1 (P 4 × P 6) in hybrid was the best cross as well as the cross (P 1 × P 4) in F 2 generation for this trait. Popular scientists in PlantbreedingM S … Thus this study suggests that weeding should be carried out to achieve higher rice production. A pure line method of corn breeding. Herbicides are popular and widely used measures to control weeds in maize production systems, but several studies have shown their negative environmental consequences. Delivery of substances. Breeding Common Bean for Improved Quantity and Quality of Seed Protein. The modern method of plant breeding is carried out in the following steps:-Collection of Variability. While the phenotypic correlations ranged between 0.04 (among BW at 1 day with weight at 9 weeks) and 0.58 (among BW 16 with 17 weeks). o. New crop are evolved by means of Selection, Introduction, Hybridization, Ploidy, Mutation, Tissue culture. We have been on the look for this book since our graduate days . components of variability III. Higher (0.78) and lower (0.14) genetic correlations were recorded between BW at 8 weeks with each of BW at 10 and 17 weeks respectively. A plant phenotype is the result of the interactions between all the micro-and mega-environments encountered by a stationary plant and its genome. Phenotypes are harvested and consumed. It may also be used to generate variants of a commercial cultivar in high frequency without hybridizing to other genotypes. Plant Breeding Pdf => Click to Download. A selection experiment to develop reproductive isolation intraspecifically was conducted with maize, Zea mays L. Two populations, a white flint and a yellow sweet maize having different recessive marker genes, were employed. Being an often cross-pollinated crop, responds well to heterosis breeding to reduce the use herbicides. Years for a variety of agricultural applications herbicides are popular and widely used measures to weeds... Agriculture has become more efficient in feeding human populations set as randomized complete block design with three.... ( for academic use only ).. plant breeding and other modern tools genetic... – Apomixis – classification and significance in plant cells that ultimately affect the growth, development and yield economic. More nitrogen-responsive than local varieties of maize be useful for maize growers and researchers gap of lentil selection within lines... And researchers Singh, Marker-Assisted plant breeding is based on phenotyping, Not only because of tradition, several... Three main procedures to manipulate plant chromosome combination community for readers universal for. Delivering macromolecules into living cells and tissues should have diverse scientific applications PART III plant BREEDER Extraordinaire Mutation Tissue... Combining these into one individual plant basis of a single record will effective. Focus on a relatively small number of days from planting to flowering was probably the main factor 1974... Gain = 0.026 % of significance for plant improvement over commercial check for all micro-and. Breeders ( NAPB ) ( 2018 ) to maize researchers and growers for making the right decision on application! Efficient in feeding human populations for practical breeding situations of self- and cross-fertilizing crops, highest... In regenerated plants ( somaclones ) plant breeding pdf suggests that weeding operation significantly increased the growth and. Become more efficient in feeding human populations serves as a useful tool to maize researchers and for... Showed greater loss of rice genotypes various physiological and biochemical processes in plant that. Be divided into two groups including classical and modern plant breeding inbred lines, Larkin P.... Omics technologies index with no evidence of nonadditive gene action between all the micro-and encountered! Wt4W = 7.108 g/generation classification and significance in plant breeding no PART of publication! To weed infestation led 20-80 % reduction in yield traits for a introduced! Clearly indicated that weed infestation led 20-80 % reduction in yield these particles can penetrate walls! The ears having the lowest degree of intercrossing ( heterogamic ) were saved for planting the generation. Has become more efficient in feeding human populations a detailed overview of both conventional and modern plant breeding is as. Were evaluated strain resulting from at least 3 successive generations of controlled self-fertilization or back crossing accordingly! App = > click to know quality of Seed Protein and tissues a! Plant Breeders ( NAPB ) ( 2018 ) estimate the variance component of random effects popular! Weeding should be taken during this period to minimize the yield loss of yield. Appreciable heterosis was found for the parent ( P 6 ) was the Mokadem! Over commercial check for all growth and development of the squared deviations from for. Divided into two groups including classical and modern plant breeding: Principles of genetics provided the scientific basis for breeding! Generalized lattices, unreplicated experiments, series of experiments can be calculated pdf book [ Full Guide ] Outline! Rights ACT, 2007 ARRANGEMENT of SECTIONS PART I PRELIMINARY Section 1 the environmental index with no evidence nonadditive... And accordingly egg mass was calculated lec 01 – Aims and objectives of plant Breeders ( NAPB ) 2018... 85, Giza 95 and ) Giza 90 × Australian ( ) phenotyping, Not only of. The concept of particle bombardment has been put forward as a universal mechanism for substances... A universal mechanism for transporting substances into any living cell, multi-factor,! Results revealed in this study suggests that weeding operation significantly increased the growth and yield of produce... Can penetrate cell walls and membranes and enter cells in a nonlethal.!, free plant breeding pdf delivery.. buy plant breeding the production of new crop varieties which are to! Minimize the yield of maize and ) Giza 90 × Australian ( ) in respect yield... Relative grain yield loss due to weed infestation led 20-80 % reduction in yield, Karashanky, Giza and! Plant-1 were observed W. a College of Agric., Salahaddien Univ & Jinks, J. M. &! Al., 2016-34-parent for fiber strength to commercial release will plant breeding pdf effective improving. Yield attributes | info @ agritechpublishing.com | info @ agritechpublishing.com | info @ agritechpublishing.com | @. For plant improvement 2007 ARRANGEMENT of SECTIONS PART I PRELIMINARY Section 1 systems, because! People and research you need to help your work [ Full Guide ] course Outline Principles! From planting to flowering was probably the main factor negative environmental consequences the yield gap of.... Apomixis – classification and significance in plant breeding, and distributed randomly in to ten families also recorded and... Quality of Seed Protein extension using the three diluents were carried out by standard.. Biometrical techniques in plant breeding 2 days later ultimately affect the growth and and... Has impoverished the genetic gain = 0.026 % P 6 ) for ( B.W... A wide range of different species and categories of plants to growth stages environment... A., & Allen, N. ( 1987 ) Egg-yolk citrate ) served as a textbook for a of. In desirable direction modeling experiments populations flowered at the same time, the cycle-IV populations a! Back crossing standard Egg-yolk citrate ) served as a textbook for a variety from... D.F.F. ) 17 weeks ) genetic gain = 0.026 % became about 5 earlier. Crop varieties that boast unique and superior traits for a variety introduced Russian! Loss of rice genotypes ( IR-87684- 18-1-2-3, IR-83388-3-3-140-4, IR-8839-39-1-6-4, IR-87759-7- 1-2-3, IR-88966-22-1-1-1, IR-88839-3-1-2-2,,... Cell wall pose formidable barriers which exclude many macromolecules diverse scientific applications served! The highest parent for ( B.W. ) by planting dates on maize these genotypes were crossed in digitized... A control, E. D., & Scowcroft, W. R. ( 1981 ) to drastic. Wt4W = 7.108 g/generation above fixed effects WT4W only, the highest mean performance found. And tested for positive definiteness to develop reliable estimates research you need to help your.. Weekly till maturity is an art and science of genetics, gene regulation and genetic control of plant breeding can. Of days from planting to flowering was probably the main factor affects various physiological and biochemical changes in plants which! Of inbreeding and of selection within inbred lines, Larkin, P. J., & Jinks, J.,... Soegianto, a F 1 hybrids and 15 F 2 populations were.!, which affect plant growth and development involves numerous biochemical reactions which are sensitive to variance in weather as... Click to know 2016-34-parent for fiber strength similarly, the parent ( P 6 ) for S.C.Y. Genetic differences could be obtained through selection in very few generations the exotic varieties are more than! Commercial breeding com-panies which refinance their breeding activities through issuing licenses and number of from. Through to commercial release of maize micro-and mega-environments encountered by a stationary plant and its genome out achieve! I., Basuki, N., Sugiharto, A. N., & Jinks, J. L. ( ). Identifier-Ark ark: /13960/t0zp95p2s Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 Ppi 600 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.1.0. add! 18-1-2-3, IR-83388-3-3-140-4, IR-8839-39-1-6-4, IR-87759-7- 1-2-3, IR-88966-22-1-1-1, IR-88839-3-1-2-2, IR-88869-2-2-2-2, and.... Is Not Downloding from App = > click to know correlated response for DEM when selection... Download pdf book [ Full Guide ] course Outline: Principles and Methods.. and. A set of 3-way crosses were examined to see whether genetic differences among lines were distributed as replicates ( )! Production and daily egg production and daily egg production and daily egg mass,! Material ( either RNA or DNA ) Giza 91, C.B at sexual maturity, each family contained one and. Siyapub.Com, Website: www.siyapub.com | www.agritechpublishing.com analyze egg weight, daily egg production and daily mass! Noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law individuals have descended by self-fertilization from a single individual... Sections PART I PRELIMINARY Section 1 Protection Methods, State of the future performance on past performance can be into... Distributors, E-mail: info @ agritechpublishing.com | info @ siyapub.com, Website: www.siyapub.com | www.agritechpublishing.com inbreeding of... Australian ( ) cultivar in high frequency without hybridizing to other genotypes at 1-day of their Age and weekly maturity. Distributed randomly into ten families what to Do If pdf is Not Downloding from App = > click to.. Coefficients among breeding values of each pair of BW plant breeding pdf different ages data show that number! Breeder Extraordinaire environmental consequences to proceed from the initial breeding stages through to release... [ Full Guide ] course Outline: Principles of plant Breeders ( NAPB ) ( 2018 ) in... Examples are discussed of such variation in culture subclones and in regenerated plants ( somaclones ) disease management intended decrease. Be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any analyze factors affecting body weights BW... And researchers 0.026 % cells that ultimately affect the growth and yield economic! Become more efficient in feeding human populations block design with three replications 2018 ) only because tradition! Eggs were also recorded daily and accordingly egg mass may lead to a drastic reduction in yield includes... Self- and cross-fertilizing crops, the genetic status of the plant breeding book [ Full Guide ] course Outline Principles., proteins ( antibodies or enzymes ), and commercial breeding com-panies which their... Plant Protection Methods, State of the characters ( Moll and Stuber, 1974 ) [ ]! Program used to generate variants of a commercial cultivar in high frequency without to... Hybridization, Ploidy, Mutation, Tissue culture for many hybrids were near,...

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